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Technical guidance on intensive seedling production of autumn and winter vegetables

Release time: 2023-08-09

      At present, it is a critical period for the cultivation of seedlings of fruits, melons and cruciferous vegetables in autumn. However, since July, extreme weather such as high temperature, typhoons and heavy rains have occurred frequently, seriously affecting the production of seedlings。In order to strengthen the management of intensive vegetable seedling cultivation, promote the orderly implementation of the work of autumn and winter vegetable seedling cultivation and transplantation, and ensure the stable supply of vegetables this winter and next spring, the National Agricultural Technology Center has organized the formulation of technical guidance on intensive vegetable seedling production in autumn and winter。All regions should make greater efforts to promote intensive vegetable seedling cultivation, and increase the proportion of intensive vegetable seedling cultivation in autumn and winter as much as possible through publicity, demonstration and unified organization of village committees and cooperatives。

      First, strengthen disaster prevention and mitigation and emergency production。We should pay close attention to short - and medium - term weather forecasts, reinforce seedling facilities in nursery farms in advance, inspect waterlogging facilities, clear ditches and remove water spots, and overhaul environmental control equipment such as shading, cooling and rain shelter in advance to improve disaster prevention and response capabilities。Some vegetable fields and nursery farms were affected by typhoon and heavy rain,The large-scale nursery plant should adjust the seedling production plan according to the market demand,Strengthen emergency production of vegetable seedlings,Increase the supply of high-quality vegetable seedlings;Strengthen production scheduling and regional adjustment in nursery farms,We will effectively ensure the supply of seedlings in all localities, especially in areas with difficulties in raising seedlings due to disasters。At the same time, nursery farms around large and medium-sized cities can increase fast-growing green leafy vegetable seedlings and sprout production when necessary to support emergency vegetable supply。

      Second, strengthen environmental regulation。When the temperature is high, the cooling system such as shading, wet curtain - fan, mist and so on will be opened, and the outer shading system will be enabled in time during the strong sunlight at noon, and the distance between the sunshade net and the shed film will be maintained as far as possible to form an air duct。When the temperature in the facility is too high, open the roof and side shed film ventilation to enhance the internal and external air circulation exchange。Close the tuyere in time before rain to prevent rain from pouring in, and ventilate in time after rain。In case of low temperature rain and snow, install two curtains and small arch sheds in the seedling facilities for multi-layer covering and insulation;When the temperature in the facility is lower than 10 ° C, temporary heating measures such as heating fans, heating heaters, warm air belts, and emergency heating blocks should be used。In case of continuous rain and snow haze days, it can be ventilated for 10 to 20 minutes when the temperature is the highest at noon, and the plant fill light is used for artificial fill light if necessary。When the long Yin suddenly sunny, can not fully uncover the cover, to gradually increase the light area, can be used to shade the sun net shade, to avoid seedling water loss wilting。In windy weather, close the vent in advance and tighten the film line。

      Third, strengthen the precise management of water and fertilizer at seedling stage。Differentiated water and fertilizer management should be implemented according to the growth and development process of seedlings。Irrigation time should be as far as possible before 10 a.m. on sunny days. Irrigation water stored in advance in the greenhouse should be used in winter irrigation, avoiding the direct use of cold irrigation water。Balanced water-soluble fertilizer should be applied to normal growth seedlings, and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrogen, should be reduced for barren seedlings, and the use of potassium and calcium fertilizer should be appropriately increased for weak growth seedlings。In rainy days, try not to water to reduce the humidity in the shed. When the humidity is high, turn on the axial fan to enhance the air disturbance in the shed to avoid leaf wetting or dew. If conditions permit, the nursery can use tidal irrigation at the bottom and air dehumidifier to reduce the humidity in the shed。In the later stage of seedling cultivation, the method of thinning disc was adopted to open a certain distance between the hole disc to improve ventilation and avoid blade occlusion。A week before seedlings are released from the nursery, water control, light enhancement, ventilation, cooling and spraying resistance agents on the leaf surface should be taken to cultivate seedlings. Cooling should be carried out gradually, water control should be appropriate, and ventilation should be from small to large。

      Fourth, strengthen seedling disease and pest control。Heavy rainfall leads to high air humidity, coupled with high and low temperature, easy to cause diseases and pests。We should adhere to the principle of "prevention is greater than cure", and comprehensively apply physical, biological, chemical and other prevention and control measures to prevent and control diseases and pests。Before seedling rearing, facilities and seedbeds were disinfected by high temperature smothered shed, chemical smoke shed or chemical spray, 40% formalin was disinfected before the hole tray was reused, and seeds were disinfected by warm soaking, medicinal soaking or dry heat treatment。Install 50~80 purpose insect-proof net in the vent of the seedling facility, hang yellow and blue armyworm plates above the seedling bed, press every 667 m2Hang 25 to 30 sets with the bottom of the armyworm plate 10 to 20 cm from the top of the seedling。Timely do a good job of cataplasis, blight and other diseases and aphids, whitefly, thrips and other pests monitoring and early warning, once found pests and diseases, early drug control。When using drugs, priority should be given to the correct high-efficiency and low-toxicity agents, pay attention to the alternating use of pesticides, and strictly implement the safety interval of pesticides。

      Five, the use of grafting seedlings。Rootstock varieties with low temperature resistance, strong resistance to soilborne diseases and high affinity with scions should be selected for solanum and melon vegetables. Wedge grafting and sleeve grafting can be used for solanum vegetables, and top grafting, monocotyledon grafting and double root grafting can be used for melon vegetables。Before grafting, pay attention to the grafting equipment, grafting site and healing room to disinfect to prevent the spread of infection due to grafting operation。The day before grafting, the anvil seedlings should be sprayed with carbendazim and other broad-spectrum fungicides to prevent diseases caused by low light and high humidity environment during grafting healing。Grafting good seedlings in time into the shade, moisturizing, temperature environment for maintenance, at noon on a sunny day, the temperature of the healing area should not be too high, to timely ventilation, such as low temperature weather, pay attention to heating and insulation, conditions of the nursery can use grafting healing room to improve the survival rate of grafting。7-10 days after grafting, the grafted seedlings are completely alive and can be converted to routine management。

      (Source: Horticultural Crop Technology Division